Tajikistan - is a country with ancient history, culture and traditions. In 874-1005 the Tajik nation was formed in the Samanid state with a common language, territory and culture. From the roots of this state, the civilization and statehood of subsequent generations of Tajiks were grown.
The culture of the Tajiks is unique and requires the multiplication and preservation of national values. Tajiks made a significant contribution to the spiritual treasury of civilization; they gave to the world outstanding and remarkable scientists, philosophers, writers, poets and architects, whose works became an integral part of the scientific and cultural baggage accumulated by the world civilization. Examples of this are the lyrics of the founder of Persian-Tajik literature Abuabdullo Rudaki, the immortal national-epic poem ‘Shahname’ of Abdulkosim Firdausi, which absorbed the legendary history of the Persians and Tajiks, and the ‘Canon of Medical Science’ of Abuali Ibn Sina (Avicenna), a treatise that served as the main guide to medical schools in Europe, for many centuries. AlKhorazmi, Al-Forobi and Aburaihon Beruni scholars, such stars of the first magnitude on the horizon of world poetry, like Khayyam, Rumi, Saadi, Hafiz, Jami, masters of art work Borbad, Mani, Behzod were known far beyond ancient Sughd, Khurasan and Movarounnahr - the main territory of modern Central Asia.
Today the Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous country with absolute altitudes from 300 to 7495 meters. 93% of the country’s territory are mountain ranges related to the Pamir, Gissar-Alai and Tien-Shan mountain systems. These ridges are divided by rich and fertile lands of Fergana, Zerafshan, Vakhsh and Gissar valleys. The complexity of the terrain and the large amplitude of the altitudes of mountain systems cause an exceptional diversity of flora and fauna.
Location: south-east of Central Asia. It borders in the east with China, in the west and north - with Uzbekistan, in the north - with Kyrgyzstan, in the south – with Afghanistan.
Territory: 142.6 thousand square kilometers
Climate: distinctly continental - in January the temperature is from -20° C to 0° C; and in June from 0° C to + 30° C, depending on the altitude.
Population: 8.7 million people (as of January 1st, 2017)
Capital: Dushanbe city
Administrative division: Badakhshan Mountainous Autonomous Region, Sughd Province, Khatlon Region, Regions of Republican Subordination.
Language: Tajik (state), Russian (the language of interethnic communication)
Currency: Tajik Somoni
According to the Constitution, the form of the government of the Republic of Tajikistan is presidential.
State power in the republic is based on the principle of separation into legislative, executive and judicial authorities.
The President is elected by citizens of Tajikistan based on universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a period of 7 years. Every citizen of the country at the age of 30 who speaks the state language and resides in Tajikistan for at least the last 10 years can be nominated as a candidate for the post of the President of the Republic.
The highest representative and legislative body of the Republic of Tajikistan is the Majlisi Oli, the parliament of the Republic of Tajikistan. The Majlisi Oli consists of two chambers - the Majlisi Milli (upper chamber) and the Majlisi Namoyandagon (lower chamber) and is elected for a term of five years. Members of the Parliament of the Majlisi Namoyandagon are elected based on universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan is a body of executive state authority. The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan carries out its activities on the basis of the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Constitutional Law of the Republic of Tajikistan “On the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan” and other regulatory acts. The Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan is the President.
The judicial authority in the Republic of Tajikistan is carried out by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Superior Economic Court, the Military Court, and by the courts of the Badakhshan Mountainous Autonomous Region, by the regional, city and district courts. The judicial authority is independent; it protects individual rights and freedoms, interests of the state, organizations, institutions, legality and justice. Judges are independent in their activities; they only obey the Constitution and the Law.
The basis of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan is the policy of Open Doors, when implementation of which Tajikistan develops friendly relations based on mutual respect, equality and mutually beneficial cooperation with all countries of the world.
Due to this policy, our country has strengthened its position in the international arena. Today, 151 countries officially recognized Tajikistan, and the diplomatic relations are established with 126 of them. The Republic of Tajikistan is an active member of more than 50 international and regional organizations such as the UN, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, OSCE, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the SCO, the WTO and others.