Tajikistan endowed with rich hydropower resources, hydro potential is estimated to be 527 billion kWh per year. In technical terms, the waterpower resources of Tajikistan have good prospects for the development and consist of 317 billion kWh per year of which only 4-5% has been used so far. Tajikistan’s hydropower potentialranks No.8 after China, Russia, the USA, Brazil, Zaire, India and Canada. Tajik energy basis is hydropower – over 95 percent. Tajikistan’s hydropower potentialis three times higher than the current electricity consumption throughout Central Asia. The effective use of these resources will allow the region to be provided with inexpensive and green power. The main hydropower potential is concentrated in the basins of the Vakhsh, the Pyanj, the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya and the Zarafshan.
Tajikistan power system is 5190 MW; the share of the hydro power plants accounts for 93.9% of the total installed capacity. The share of thermal power plants is 318 MW or about 6.1%. Annual electricity generation in the Tajik energy system, consisting mainly of hydro power plants, is 16.5 billion kWh.It should be noted that more than 98% of electricity in Tajikistan is generated by hydropower plants, including 97% – by large and medium HPP.
Besides hydropower resources Tajikistan has substantial coal with estimated reserves of 4.5 billion tons. The industrial products structure analysis shows that the coal extraction is dynamically growing in the country and 2017 year for the first time during the independence period its extraction reached 1.7m tones. Active coal mining is implemented in coal fields of Tajikistan: “Shurob”, “Nazarailok”, “Fon-Yagnob”, “Zidi” and other coal fields. Their reserves are more than 100 million tons of coal.
The climate of Tajikistan is very favorable for the use of solar energy. On average there are 280-330 sunny days per year, and total solar radiation intensity varies during the year between 280 and 925 MJ/m2 in the foothills, and between 360 and 1120 MJ/m2 in the highlands. Use of available solar energy in Tajikistan can meet 10-20% of energy demand. Estimated potential of solar energy in Tajikistan is about 25 billion kWh / year. This potential is not used, if not to take into account some of its use for water heating.
There is small wind energy potential, but its use as a complementary main hydropower is justified in some regions. There is small wind energy potential, but its use as a complementary main hydropower justified in some regions. The strongest winds are observed in mountainous areas, where the landscape of the country finds the maximum wind speed and flows, as well as in the Sughd region and the Rasht Valley. Mean wind speed in these regions is about 5-6 m/sec.
More information on water and energy sector